Supporting Children's Rights through Arts, Education and the Media (SCREAM - Stop Child Labour!)
The SCREAM programme offers a unique opportunity to engage a wide range of community actors and organizations in the promotion of social justice and universally recognized human and labour rights.The education pack, which forms the basis of the SCREAM programme, is made up of 15 educational modules and a User’s Guide. The SCREAM modules enable young people to express themselves through different forms of artistic media, such as drama, creative writing, music and the visual arts, and in a manner specific to their culture and traditions. As well as raising their own awareness and that of their peers, by going through this learning process, young people will gain the skills and confidence to address their message to the society at large – their parents, relations, neighbours, teachers, local communities and authorities. In this way, young people and adults become partners for social change.
The modules are flexible and the process has been conceived in a “building block” format, in other words, in a way that they can be adapted to the context in which educators are working and the constraints they may face, either in time or resources. They are intended to be adaptable to any geographical or cultural context and to any formal or informal setting. The activities may be part of a year-long education programme or a one week workshop – activities should be planned to suit the conditions and needs of those involved.
The SCREAM Pack contains 15 modules:
-Research and Information
-Interview and Survey
-Media Radio, and Television
-World of Work
-HIV/AIDS and Child Labour
Here is included one lesson plan from the Module called 'The Image' (Please see the internet links to access the whole education pack)
Lesson Plan extract from 'The Image':
Aim: Create a profile of a child labourer. Build and expand on the profile. Set the context in which the child labourer lives within a broader global context.
If you have already done the Collage module, you will have shown your group how easily the world can choose to ignore child labour and pretend it does not exist. By doing this, you have created in them a sense of expectation, a need. “OK,” they are saying to themselves, “child labour exists and yet we don’t know what it looks like because it’s not in any magazines and stuff. So, what does it look like?” This module aims to give a face to child labour. The objective of the first activity in this module is to facilitate the visualization of child labour. Maybe there are cases of child labour in your immediate environment and you can take your group to meet these children themselves. Maybe some members of your group have experienced it or know children who have and can share their experiences. In some countries, you may not have these options and you will therefore need an image – a graphic image of a child working that the group can see, touch and give a life to. This exercise will make your group think very hard about what child labour really is. It will challenge them.
The objective is for them to get to know and understand the child labourer on a much more personal level. It begins to work on young people’s emotions and should start to stir up their anger. It would be difficult for them to walk away from this exercise without any emotional experience whatsoever.
The second activity goes one step further in developing the broader environment in which the child lives and works. It also begins to create the child’s history and future. Lastly, it takes a look at the critical issue of change and how change is brought about.
Perhaps some of the young people in the group have done some kind of social work, such as volunteering for civil defence or Red Cross or Red Crescent programmes, caring for the elderly or helping deprived children. All of these areas have a common theme – they involve working with people who are vulnerable, marginalized, excluded or abused to some degree or other. In addition, they all point to the need for every member of society to play a role in advocating for change.
This module also introduces the technique of brainstorming, which is a useful method of allowing individuals to express their emotions and opinions in a non-threatening environment. Brainstorming is giving expression to feelings that one would normally keep hidden – it is an enabler and will help in further deepening the commitment of young people to the elimination of child labour.
Time Required: Time frame 4 single or, ideally, 2 double teaching sessions
Gain: Personalizes the issue of child labour and heightens the emotional awareness of what child labour is. Instils a sense of responsibility for the child(ren) in the image(s). Introduces the question of how change is brought about in society.
The first part of this exercise involves building a profile of a child labourer on the basis of an image. The image is the starting point on which the groups will build with the help of their imagination and creativity. Once they have created their profiles, they present them to the other groups, answer questions and take part in a general discussion.
There are two permutations from which you can choose Images for this activity. You can either use one image for all of the groups, so that the groups can compare their work and listen and learn from each other’s profiles. Or you can give each group a different image of a child labourer so that you encourage diversity and help young people understand that child labour has many shapes and forms. Which option you choose depends on you and how well you know your group of charges. Depending on the size of your group, you might keep Group organization them all together or split them up into groups of no more than four or five. Make sure that each group has a copy or view of the image.
The reason why it is better to work in groups rather than as individuals is that young people find confidence in numbers. They may be uncomfortable trying to build a fictitious profile of the child labourer by themselves, whereas in groups of two to four or five they are often more at ease.
Building a profile of a child labourer
(1 double or 2 single teaching sessions)
Get each group to pass the image amongst themselves. If you do not have enough copies of the image to give each group one of their own, pass the image around so that everyone sees it close up and then stick it up on the wall for them to look at and contemplate from time to time during the exercise. If each group has its own copy, once the image has been passed around, tell them to put it in a central position where they can all see it. Move slowly among the groups, encourage them to
study the image carefully and to think about the child subject. Tell them to let their imaginations run free and their creative juices to flow.
There are two stages to this part of the exercise:
The first step is to get the group to think about who the child is and what sort of environment he or she lives and works in. There are a number of questions that the group should ask themselves. You can write some of these up somewhere, read them out or provide a photocopied list, but it is very important that you leave some blanks and don’t create too exhaustive a list. The idea is that the groups and individuals themselves come up with some questions of their own. If you provide too much detail, you do not stimulate their thought processes. Rather, you stifle them and make them lazy.
Encourage the groups to begin to build a profile of the subject on the basis of questions, such as:
Is the child a girl or a boy?
How old do you think the child is?
Which country do you think the child comes from?
Why is the child equipped or dressed in such a way?
What time of day is it?
Under what circumstances does the child work?
Is this a rural or urban area?
Some groups might like to begin plotting the profile in
the form of a narrative, notes or ideas. Others might prefer to create an image of the subject in their head or in the form of a detailed picture with other pictures drawn around it. It doesn’t matter how they wish to create this profile – any way is acceptable. Keep talking to them throughout the exercise – don’t let their interest wane.
Fleshing out the profile
Once they have got through the first set of questions and you feel happy with the way they are responding to the exercise, go on to a new set of more personal questions and begin to study the subject even more closely:
What is the child’s name?
How long has he or she been doing this work?
Does the child have parents, brothers, sisters, pets?
What is the economic or social position of the child?
Why does the child work at all?
Does the sex of the child have an influence on the type of work he or she does?
Is the child beaten, deprived, sexually abused, sexually exploited or cared for?
What friends or enemies does the child have both at and outside work?
What would the child like to be doing now instead of working?
Does the child have any ambitions in life not connected to his or her work? What is the child’s biggest ambitionin life?
What, if anything, does the child own? How did he or she come to own these things?
What are the child’s best and worst memories?
You are asking your audience to be both imaginative and creative. They may balk a bit at first, saying “How are we expected to know their names? They probably speak a different language. How do we know what toys they have?”
That’s the whole point of this exercise. They know nothing other than what the child looks like. They must put the flesh on the character’s bones – give him or her a life, a past, a family. Once they get passed the inevitable initial grumbling, they will be fine and will probably produce some very creative profiles.
This is the result you are looking for. As you move among the groups, check on their progress. Listen to their discussions, add something yourself, encourage them to be humorous. Let them know that they can develop the profile in any form they wish and that they should try and be as creative and imaginative as possible in presenting their version of the profile to the full group as they were in its development. For example, they might act out their presentation, present the profile in the form of a drawing or prepare a detailed narrative on a black/whiteboard or flipchart.
Do not overextend the time you allow (around 20 minutes would be sufficient). Keep them under some time pressure to complete their profiles and when you feel the time is right, call everyone together for a general discussion.
Presentation of profiles
The groups will all want to talk about this “character” they have created. Develop a fairly lively session in which the different groups can share the profile of “their” child labourer with you and the rest of the group.
If some groups have taken the trouble to prepare an original presentation of their work, let them have the floor and their time in the spotlight. These presentations (if they occur, and this may not always be the case) will provide light relief and good-natured repartee between the audience and the presenting group. Allow this to an extent but not so that it undermines or overshadows the presentation itself. If you feel it appropriate and that it might stimulate the group’s creativity, you can introduce an element of competition, for example:
Offer a prize for the most detailed and creative profile of the child labourer. Get the groups to judge this competition.
Offer a prize for the most original presentation of the child labourer’s profile.
Write down the characteristics of the different profiles on a black/whiteboard or flipchart.
If you have worked with the same image for each of the groups, then with them all together, build a general profile of one child labourer taking bits from each group’s. Let them understand they have all contributed to giving life to this image. The subject lives and breathes, walks and talks, feels, laughs and cries. This is a very important step in the awareness-raising process with young people. They should now be able to relate to the image of the child labourer. This individual is one of them. He or she is a member of their peer group, a friend, someone they feel for. They can begin to understand the pain, misery and deprivation that this child suffers daily. It is a powerful personalization process and effectively takes young people to a new level of awareness and understanding. Nothing can be the same for them again.
This should be the tone of the discussion as you bring it to a natural conclusion. Use close communication techniques. Look your audience in the eyes as you describe the life they have created for the child labourer. Be expressive. Move among the group slowly and using body language to depict suffering. This is a somewhat depressing section but it is all part of the emotive nature of child labour. It is not a nice thing. It hurts children and can even kill them. It can certainly ruin their lives and rob them of the most precious human right – the right to freedom.
(Please access the module online to see Activity 2, the Do's and Dont's and the 'Discussion' Section
Note for the user:
If you are approaching these teaching modules in a systematic way, we recommend that you implement the Collage module before tackling this one. The Collage also uses images to convey a message and the two dovetail quite naturally. It would also be useful for this module if your group already has a handle on basic statistics and information on child labour (Basic Information module) and has been through an awareness-raising exercise.
Evaluation and follow-up
As well as specific outcomes to this module, there are psychological and emotional indicators that will help you to evaluate its impact. The specific outcome of the first activity will be the profiles of the child labourers – each group should produce
its own profile of the image(s) of the child subject(s). An indication of the level of achievement in this session will be the depth of the profile and the amount of detail. These will indicate to what extent the young people in the group have “adopted” this child. The more descriptive, imaginative and creative the profile, the more these young people will have taken the exercise to heart and taken the child under their protective wing.
Nothing really tangible is produced in Activity two. The main indicator upon which you can evaluate its impact is the level of participation of the group in the discussions and, particularly, the brainstorming sessions. You will note that reference is made to how receptive your audience has been in developing profiles of child labourers. These are key indicators of the level of impact the module has had on these young people. This module is the link between initial awareness-raising and the personalization of child labour. It is designed to move beyond understanding that child labour is an issue to the realization that it involves small children, real human beings who walk, talk, feel and hurt. It can be very intense and have a powerful impact on your audience. In many societies, human rights violations are thought of as things that happen to other people in other countries or regions.
We can remain detached about what happens elsewhere in our world if we choose to. This module is the one that should begin to change the way the young people feel about the issue of child labour. Now child labour has a face and a life that they themselves have helped create.
Now they will want to do something to help IPEC in its efforts because they will have strong feelings about the “new” member of their group: the image that they have focused on throughout this module has become a person and an identifiable member of the group.
Once you have completed this module to your satisfaction, move on to a new module. We recommend that the next module you tackle continues to work with the image(s) of the child labourer(s) that your group has come to know and care for. For example, in the Role-play module your young charges will give life to the characters they have created from the images by acting out scenes from their lives.
What you’ll need:- - A photograph or a printout of an image of a child labourer. - A room for the group to work in. If you have a large group, you will need to break this down into smaller groups and divide the room up into smaller workspaces. - Wall space to stick up the poster or image if you only have one or two copies. -Paper and pens/pencils for the group to make notes. -If available, a black/whiteboard or flipchart. Preparation In preparing for this activity, you need to select one or several image(s) of child labour and make sure you have enough copies to go around (don’t worry if you don’t have access to a photocopier; even one copy of the image as contained in this package is enough to do this module with). In this pack you will find a small selection of images of child labourers in different settings. Alternatively, you can research other images using one or some of the following sources: If you have access to a computer and the Internet, the IPEC Web site (www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/index.htm) has a photo gallery containing images of child labourers. Look through the gallery for a photograph that will suit your needs and then either print it out from the Internet or save it to your hard disk and print it out using an image enhancing programme. If you have the possibility of printing the image in colour, so much the better, but black and white is just as acceptable. Print enough copies to be divided out among the groups. The ILO also has posters of child labour that could be used. Other organizations, such as UNICEF, One World, UNESCO or Christian Aid, may have photo libraries, which you can either consult on-line or contact to obtain copies of images. Elements to take into account when choosing the image(s) are: Consider the gender, age and cultural mix of the young people who make up the group. This will help you in choosing the image(s) that will appeal best to them. For example, should you find images of a girl or a boy, in Africa, Asia, Latin America or Europe? Should you find image(s) of the worst forms of child labour? You might consider obtaining a number of different images and using them in different circumstances. Choose images that are detailed and of reasonable quality. This will help young people to identify the child labourers, what they do and where they are from, and to build their own picture of the child as an individual. This is very important. Make sure that you have enough paper and pencils, as many of the group members will wish to write things down for this exercise. If available, get hold of flipcharts or use black/whiteboards as this will help during broader discussions. If some of these materials are difficult to come by, involve the young people in your group in obtaining materials either from home or the place they live, from recycling plants, from generous local retail outlets or other businesses. By being involved, they develop a sense of ownership, interest and motivation. Their natural curiosity will be aroused to know what they need all this stuff for. (Note for the user: IPEC has produced a special SCREAM version of its Photo Catalogue on CD-ROM which can be found inside the cover of the module entitled "International Declarations and Conventions and Images of child labour" or can be requested directly from the IPEC office. Refer to the contact details of IPEC in this pack to order a copy of the CD-ROM or to request printed copies of images.)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
Resource Type:Lesson Plan
Subject(s):Civics, Arts, Global Studies,
Topic:Education, Human Rights, Media,
Level:Primary / ElementaryIntermediate / MiddleSecondaryPost-Secondary (College/University)
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